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5 years

Universal Pre-Kindergarten Performance Standards ......

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Domain 1. Approaches to Learning
Approaches to Learning: Foundational Skills
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow

1. Actively and confidently engages in play as a means of exploration and learning.
a) Interacts with a variety of materials through play.
b) Participates in multiple play activities with same material.
c) Engages in pretend and imaginative play – testing theories, acting out imagination.
d) Self-selects play activity and demonstrates spontaneity.
e) Uses “trial and error” method to figure out a task, problem, etc.
f) Demonstrates awareness of connections between prior and new knowledge.

2. Actively engages in problem solving.
a) Identifies a problem and tries to solve it independently.
b) Attempts multiple ways to solve a problem.
c) Communicates more than one solution to a problem.
d) Engages with peers and adults to solve problems.

3. Approaches tasks, activities and problems with creativity, imagination and/or willingness to try new experiences or activities.
a) Chooses materials/props and uses novel ways to represent ideas, characters, and objects.
b) Identifies additional materials to complete a task.
c) Experiments and seeks additional clarity to further his/her knowledge.
d) Seeks additional clarity to further his/her knowledge.
e) Seeks out connections, relations and assistance from peers and adults to complete a task.
f) Communicates more than one solution to a problem.

4. Exhibits curiosity, interest, and willingness in learning new things and having new experiences.
a) Asks questions using who, what, how, why, when, where, what if.
b) Expresses an interest in learning about and discussing a growing range of ideas.
c) Actively explores how things in the world work.
d) Investigates areas of interest.
e) Takes objects and materials apart and attempts to reassemble them (e.g., puzzles, models, nuts and bolts).
f) Seeks out activities and materials that support his/her curiosity.
g) Willingly engages in new experiences and activities.

5. Demonstrates persistence.
a) Maintains focus on a task.
b) Seeks assistance when the next step seems unclear or appears too difficult.
c) Modifies strategies used to complete a task.

Domain 2: Physical Development and Health
Physical Development and Health: Foundational Skills
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

1. Uses senses to assist and guide learning.
a) Identifies sights, smells, sounds, tastes and textures.
b) Compares and contrasts different sights, smells, sounds, tastes, and textures.
c) Uses descriptive words to discuss sights, smells, sounds, tastes, and textures.

2. Uses sensory information to plan and carry out movements.
a) Demonstrates appropriate body awareness when moving in different spaces.
b) Exhibits appropriate body movements when carrying out a task.
c) Demonstrates awareness of spatial boundaries and the ability to work within them.

3. Demonstrates coordination and control of large muscles.
a) Displays an upright posture when standing or seated.
b) Maintains balance during sitting, standing, and movement activities.
c) Runs, jumps, walks in a straight line, and hops on one foot.
d) Climbs stairs using alternating feet.
e) Puts on age appropriate clothing items, such as shirts, jackets, pants, shoes, etc.

4. Combines a sequence of large motor skills with and without the use of equipment.
a) Navigates age appropriate playground equipment.
b) Peddles a tricycle.
c) Throws, catches or kicks a large, light-weight ball (8” - 10”).
d) Participates in a series of large motor movements or activities such as, dancing, follow the leader, or Simon Says.

5. Demonstrates eye-hand coordination and dexterity needed to manipulate objects.
a) Uses pincher grasp (index finger and thumb).
b) Demonstrates ability to engage in finger plays.
c) Uses materials such as pencils, paint brushes, eating utensils and blunt scissors effectively.
d) Manipulates small objects with ease (fits objects into holes, strings wooden beads, stacks mini blocks, uses geo boards, etc.).
e) Uses buttons, zippers, snaps, and hook and loop tape successfully.

6. Engages in a variety of physical fitness activities.
a) Engages in large motor activities (e.g., marching, hopping, running, jumping, dancing) in increasingly longer periods of time as skill and endurance develops.
b) Explores, practices, and performs skill sets: throwing, pushing, pulling, catching, balancing, etc.
c) Participates in activities designed to strengthen major muscle groups.
d) Participates in activities to promote balance and flexibility.

7. Demonstrates personal care and hygiene skills.
a) Demonstrates growing independence in using personal hygiene skills (e.g., washing hands, brushing teeth, toileting, etc.)
b) Exhibits self help skills when dressing, cleaning up, participating in meals, etc.
c) Recognizes and communicates when experiencing symptoms of illness.

8. Demonstrates awareness and understanding of healthy habits.
a) Recognizes the importance of good nutrition, water, rest and sleep in order to be healthy.
b) Talks about food choices in relationship to allergies and overall health.
c) Relates healthy behaviors to good personal health (milk for strong bones, spinach for strong muscles).
d) Describes the role of doctors, dentists and other health care workers in keeping him/herself healthy.

9. Demonstrates awareness and understanding of safety rules.
a) Verbalizes and demonstrates safety rules such as holding an adult’s hand when walking on sidewalks or near a street.
b) Communicates to peers and adults when observing unsafe behavior (e.g., Tommy is throwing rocks).
c) Understands that some practices could be unsafe (e.g., playing with matches, playing near a busy street, not wearing a bike helmet).
d) Demonstrates knowledge of bus safety (e.g., crosses in front of the bus after the driver signals, wears seatbelt).
e) Participates in fire evacuation drills, understands what the alarm bell is and the need to go to a safe location, etc.
f) Explains how to get help in emergency situations.

Domain 3: Social and Emotional Development
Social and Emotional Development: Foundation Skills
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

1. Recognizes himself/herself as a unique individual having his/her own abilities, characteristics, feelings and interests.
a) Describes himself/herself using several different characteristics.
b) Identifies self as being part of a family and identifies being connected to at least one significant adult.
c) Demonstrates knowledge of his/her own uniqueness (talent, interests, preferences, gender, culture, etc.).
d) Exhibits self confidence by attempting new tasks independent of prompting or reinforcement.
e) Compares and/or contrasts self to others (e.g., physical characteristics, preferences, feelings, abilities).
f) Identifies the range of feelings he/she experiences, and that his/her feelings may change over time, as the environment changes, and in response to the behavior of others.
g) Displays accomplishment, contentment, and acknowledgement when completing a task or solving a problem by himself/herself (e.g., wants to show a peer or adult).

2. Regulates his/her responses to needs, feelings and events.
a) Expresses feelings, needs, opinions and desires in a way that is appropriate to the situation.
b) Appropriately names types of emotions (e.g., frustrated, happy, excited, sad) and associates them with different facial expressions, words and behaviors.
c) Demonstrates an ability to independently modify their behavior in different situations.

3. Demonstrates and continues to develop positive relationships with significant adults (primary caregivers, teachers and other familiar adults).
a) Interacts with significant adults.
b) Seeks guidance from primary caregivers, teachers and other familiar adults.
c) Transitions into unfamiliar setting with the assistance of familiar adults.

4. Develops positive relationships with their peers.
a) Approaches children already engaged in play.
b) Interacts with other children (e.g., in play, conversation, etc.).
c) Shares materials and toys with other children.
d) Sustains interactions by cooperating, helping, and suggesting new ideas for play.
e) Develops close friendship with one or more peers.
f) Offers support to another child or shows concern when a peer seems distressed.

5. Demonstrates pro-social problem solving skills in social interactions.
a) Seeks input from others about a problem.
b) Uses multiple pro-social strategies to resolve conflicts (e.g., trade, take turns, problem solve).
c) Uses and accepts compromise, with assistance.

6. Understands and follows routines and rules.
a) Displays an understanding of the purpose of rules.
b) Engages easily in routine activities (e.g., story time, snack time, circle time).
c) Uses materials purposefully, safely and respectfully as set by group rules.
d) With assistance, understands that breaking rules have a consequence.
e) Applies rules in new, but similar situations.
f) Demonstrates the ability to create new rules for different situations.

7. Adapts to change.
a) Easily separates himself/herself from parent or caregiver.
b) Transitions with minimal support between routine activities and new/unexpected occurrences.
c) Adjusts behavior as appropriate for different settings and /or events.
d) Uses multiple adaptive strategies to cope with change (e.g., seeking social support from and adult or peer, taking deep breaths, engaging in another activity).

Domain 4: Communication, Language and Literacy
PART A: Approaches to Communication
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

1. Demonstrate that they are motivated to communicate.
a) Participates in small or large group activities for story telling, singing or finger plays.
b) Asks questions.
c) Listens attentively for a variety of purposes (e.g., for enjoyment; to gain information; to perform a task; to learn what happened; to follow directions).
d) Initiates conversations, both verbally and nonverbally, about things around them.
e) Nods or gives non verbal cues that he is understanding.
f) Maintains eye contact when trying to interact with a peer or adult.
g) Makes choices about how to communicate the ideas he wants to share (e.g., gestures, scribbles, sign language, speaking).

2. Demonstrates he/she is building background knowledge.
a) Asks questions related to a particular item, event or experience.
b) Correctly identifies meanings of words in read alouds, in conversation, and in the descriptions of everyday items in the world around them.
c) Uses new vocabulary correctly.
d) Makes comparisons to words and concepts already known.

3. Demonstrates that he/she understand what they observe.
a) Uses vocabulary relevant to observations.
b) Identifies emotions by observing faces in pictures and faces of peers and adults.
c) Asks questions related to visual text and observations.
d) Makes inferences and draws conclusions based on information from visual text.
e) Begins to identify relevant and irrelevant information, pictures, and symbols related to a familiar topic.

4. Demonstrates his/her ability to express ideas using a variety of methods.
a) Uses facial expressions, body language, gestures, and sign language to express ideas.
b) Uses existing objects to represent desired or imagined objects in play or other purposeful way (e.g., plastic banana for a telephone).
c) Uses visual media to represent an actual experience.
d) Reviews and reflects on his/her own representations.
e) Writes and draws spontaneously to communicate meaning with peers or adults during play.

5. Demonstrates a growing receptive vocabulary.
a) Understands and follows spoken directions.
b) Identifies pictures related to words (show me the white dog).
c) Responds/reacts to questions/comments indicating he understands meaning (e.g., body language, gestures, facial expressions, and words).
d) Identifies meanings of words used in read-alouds, in conversation and in descriptions of everyday items in the world around him.
6. Demonstrates a growing expressive vocabulary.
a) Uses facial expressions, body language, gestures, and sign language to engage in reciprocal conversation.
b) Uses more complex words in conversation.
c) Makes use of new and rare words introduced by adults or peers.
d) Correctly names picture when asked, “What is this?”
e) Begins to use appropriate volume and speed so spoken message is understood.
f) Initiates conversations about a book, situation, event or print in the environment.

PART B: English Language Arts and Literacy
(From the NYS Common Core Learning Standards)
Reading Standards for Literature
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer about detail(s) in a text.
2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories.
3. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about characters and major events in a story.
4. Exhibit curiosity and interest in learning new vocabulary (e.g., ask questions about unfamiliar vocabulary).
5. Students interact with a variety of common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems, songs).
6. With prompting and support, can describe the role of an author and illustrator.
7. With prompting and support, students will engage in a picture walk to make connections between self, illustrations, and the story.
8. Not applicable to literature
9. With prompting and support, students will compare and contrast two stories relating to the same topic (Mercer Meyer series)
a) With prompting and support, students will make cultural connections to text and self.
10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
1. With prompting and support, make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text, media, social interaction).

Reading Standards for Informational Text
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about details in a text.
2. With prompting and support, retell detail(s) in a text.
3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two events or pieces of information in a text.
4. Exhibit curiosity and interest in learning new vocabulary (e.g., ask questions about unfamiliar vocabulary).
5. Identify the front cover, back cover; displays correct orientation of book, page turning skills.
6. With prompting and support, can describe the role of an author and illustrator.
7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear
(e.g., what person, place, thing or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
8. Not applicable to prekindergarten.
9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic
 (e.g., illustrations, descriptions or procedures).
10. With prompting and support, actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a) Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
b) Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
c) Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d) Recognize and name some upper /lowercase letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name.
e) Recognize that letters are grouped to form words.
f) Differentiate letters from numerals.

2. Demonstrate an emerging understanding of spoken words, syllables and sounds (phonemes).
a) Engage in language play (e.g., alliterative language, rhyming, sound patterns).
b) Recognize and match words that rhyme.
c) Demonstrate awareness of relationship between sounds and letters.
d) With support and prompting, isolate and pronounce the initial sounds in words.

3. Demonstrate emergent phonics and word analysis skills.
a) With prompting and support, demonstrate one-to-one letter-sound correspondence by producing the primary sound of some consonants.
b) Recognizes own name and common signs and labels in the environment.

4. Displays emergent reading behaviors with purpose and understanding (e.g., pretend reading).

Writing Standards
1. With prompting and support, use a combination of drawing, dictating, or writing to express an opinion about a book or topic (e.g., I like…. because…)
2. With prompting and support, use a combination of drawing, dictating, or writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
3. With prompting and support, use a combination of drawing, dictating, or writing to narrate a single event and provide a reaction to what happened.
4. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 3).
5. With guidance and support, respond to questions and suggestions and add details to strengthen illustration or writing, as needed.
6. With guidance and support, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing; collaborate with peers.
7. With guidance and support, participate in shared research and writing projects
(e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).
8. With guidance and support, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.
9. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 4).
10. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 3).
11. Create and present a poem, dramatization, art work, or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class, with prompting and support as needed.

Speaking and Listening Standards
1. With guidance and support, participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about pre- kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and large groups.
a) Engage in agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
b) Engage in extended conversations.
c) Communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.

2. With guidance and support, confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
3. With guidance and support, ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.
5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
6. Demonstrate an emergent ability to express thoughts, feelings and ideas.

Language Standards
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a) Print some upper- and lower-case letters.(e.g., letters in their name).
b) Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs (orally).
c) With guidance and support, form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/  (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
d) Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
e) In speech, use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
f) With guidance and support, produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a) Capitalize the first letter in their name.
b) Attempt to write a letter or letters to represent a word.
c) With guidance and support, attempt to spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

3. Use knowledge of language and how language functions in different contexts.

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on pre-kindergarten reading and content.
a) Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately
(e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).

5. With guidance and support, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a) Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) for understanding of the concepts the categories represent.
b) Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (e.g., up, down, stop, go, in, out).
c) Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
d) Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.

6. With prompting and support, use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

Domain 5: Cognition and Knowledge of the World
Cognition and Knowledge of the World
Mathematics (From the NYS Common Core Learning Standards)
NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

a. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
b. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
c. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
d. Model with mathematics.
e. Use appropriate tools strategically.
f. Attend to precision.
g. Look for and make use of structure.
h. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

Counting and Cardinality
• Know number names and the count sequence.
• Count to tell the number of objects.
• Compare numbers.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking
• Understand addition as adding to, and understand subtraction as taking from.
• Understand simple patterns.

Measurement and Data
• Describe and compare measurable attributes.
• Sort objects and count the number of objects in each category.
• Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles).
• Analyze, compare, and sort objects.

Know number names and the count sequence
1. Count to 20.
2. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0 – 5 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

 Count to Tell the Number of Objects
3. Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities to 10; connect counting to cardinality.
a) When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
b) Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same.
c) Regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
d) Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
4. Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 10 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as any as 5 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1 – 10, count out that many objects.

Compare Numbers
5. Identify whether the number of objects in one group is more, less, greater than, fewer, and/or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies (up to 5 objects).
6. Identify “first” and “last” related to order or position.

Understand addition as adding to, and understand subtraction as taking from.
1. Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction by using objects, fingers, and responding to practical situations (e.g., if we have 3 apples and add 2 more, how many apples do we have all together?).

Understand simple patterns.
2. Duplicate and extend (e.g., what comes next?) simple patterns using concrete objects.

Describe and compare measurable attributes.

  1. Identify measurable attributes of objects, such as length, and weight. Describe them using correct vocabulary (e.g., small, big, short, tall, empty, full, heavy, and light).

Sort objects and count the number of objects in each category.
2. Sort objects into categories; count the numbers of objects in each category (limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10).

Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles).
1. Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as top, bottom, up, down, in front of, behind, over, under, and next to.
2. Correctly name shapes regardless of size.

Analyze, compare, and sort objects.
1. Analyze, compare, and sort two- and three-dimensional shapes and objects, in different sizes, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, and other attributes (e.g., color, size, and shape).
2. Create and build shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls).

NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.
1. Asks questions and makes predictions based on observations and manipulation of things and events in the environment.
a) Uses senses to gather, explore, and interpret information.
b) Manipulates and observes objects in his or her surroundings to develop conclusions.
c) Makes observations and describes changes in objects, living things, and natural events in the environment.
d) Organizes his or her observations of objects and events by identifying, classifying, etc.
e) Asks “why,” “how,” and “what if” questions and seeks answers through experimentation and investigation.
f) Makes predictions based on background knowledge, previous scientific experiences, and observations of objects and events in the world.

2. Tests predictions through exploration and experimentation.
a) Gives oral, written or graphic explanations of what he/she wants to learn.
b) Uses a variety of tools and materials to test predictions through active experimentation (child uses magnifying glass to examine pine needles; child puts large paper clip on water to see if it floats.)
c) Replicates or changes the experimental approach.
d) Records and organizes data using graphs, charts, science journals, or other means of recording.

3. Generates explanations and communicates conclusions regarding experiments and explorations.
a) Compares and contrasts attributes of objects, living things, and events in the environment to organize what they have learned.
b) Identifies cause and effect relationships.
c) Verifies predictions by explaining “how” and “why.”
d) Makes age appropriate, logical conclusions about investigations.
e) Shares ideas about objects, living things and other natural events in the environments through words, pictures, and other representations.

4. Observes and describes characteristics of earth and space.
a) Investigates and identifies properties of soil, rocks, and minerals.
b) Investigates and identifies physical properties and characteristics of water (solid, liquid, and gas).
c) Makes simple observations of the characteristics and movements of sun, moon, stars, and clouds.
d) Observes and discusses changes in weather and seasons using common weather related vocabulary (e.g., rainy, sunny, snowy, windy, cloudy, etc.).
e) Expresses ways the environment provides natural resources that are needed by people (e.g., wood for lumber to build shelter, water for drinking).
f) Demonstrates ways that each person is responsible for protecting our planet (e.g., recycling plastic, glass, and cardboard, reusing a plastic container sandwich box, mending clothing rather than throwing away, etc.).

5. Observes and describes characteristics of living things.
a) Observes and discusses similarities, differences, and categories of plants and animals.
b) Identifies things as living or non-living based on characteristics, such as breathes, moves by itself, grows.
c) Explains why plants and animals need water and food.
d) Observes and discusses similarities, differences, and categories of plants and animals.
e) Identifies things as living or non-living based on characteristics, such as breathes, moves by itself, grows.
f) Explains why plants and animals need water and food.
g) Describes simple life cycles of plants and animals.
h) Describes and identifies the different structures of familiar plants and animals.
(Plants have stems, roots, leaves; animals have eyes, mouths, ears, etc.)
i) Recognizes that plants and animals have some characteristics of their “parents.”
j) Observes, describes, and compares the habitats of plants and animals.
k) Observes, records, and explains how plants and animals respond to changes in the environment and changes in seasons.

6. Acquires knowledge about the physical properties of the world.
a) Describes, compares, and categorizes objects based on their properties.
b) Uses senses to explore different environments (classroom, playground, field trips).
c) Recognizes and describes the effect of his/her own actions on objects.
d) Describes tools and their specific functions (e.g., hammer for pounding nails).
e) Uses a variety of tools to explore the world and learn how things work (such as magnifiers and balance scales).
f) Investigates common interactions between matter and energy
(butter melting in cooking activities; cream turning to butter; peanuts becoming peanut butter, etc.)
g) Describes and compares the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls) on objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and mechanical forces.
h) Explores and discusses simple chemical reactions with teacher assistance
(e.g., baking soda and water, mixing oil and water).

NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.
1. Develops a basic awareness of self as an individual, self within the context of family, and self within the context of community.
a) Identifies him/herself by using characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, race, religion, language and culture.
b) Describes how each person is unique and important.
c) Identifies family members, family characteristics and functions.
d) Identifies as a member of a family.
e) States how families are similar and different.
f) Describes his own community and/or cultural group.
g) Describes how people within a community are alike and different
(e.g., eat different foods, wear different clothing, speak different languages).
h) Recognizes some community workers and describes what they do.

2. Demonstrates awareness and appreciation of their own culture and other cultures.
a) Talks about and/or shows items related to his/her family and cultural traditions to others.
b) Questions why and/or how people are similar/different.
c) Describes some of the holidays, dances, foods, costumes and special events, related to his/her own culture.
d) Demonstrates an understanding of similarities and differences between and among individual people and families.

3. Demonstrates knowledge of the relationship between people, places, and regions.
a) Identifies features of own home and familiar places.
b) Names the street, neighborhood, city or and town where he/she lives.
c) Uses words that indicate direction, position and relative distance.
d) Describes topographical features of familiar places (hill, river, roads, mountains, etc.).
e) Creates representations of topographical features in art work, and/or while playing with blocks, sand or other materials.
f) Is aware of his/her surroundings.

4. Develops an understanding of how people and things change over time and how to relate past events to their present and future activities.
a) Identifies routines and common occurrences in his/her life.
b) Identifies changes over time in him/herself, his/her families, and in his/her wider community.
c) Retells important events in sequential order.
d) Demonstrates interest in current events that relate to family, culture, and community.
e) Uses words and phrases that differentiate between events that happen in the past, present and future, e.g., uses phrases like “when I was a baby…” or “before I moved to my new house.”

5. Demonstrate an understanding of roles, rights, and responsibilities.
a) Recognizes that all children and adults have roles, rights, and responsibilities at home, school, in the classroom and in the community.
b) Expresses that rules are for everyone.
c) Identifies rules that protect him/herself and others.
d) Explains that rules affect children and adults.
e) Describes possible consequences when rules are not followed.

6. Begins to learn the basic civic and democratic principles.
a) Participates in making group rules and/or rules for daily routines and transitions.
b) Follows rules and may remind others of the rules.
c) Applies the skills of communication, cooperation, respect and empathy with others.
d) Demonstrates preferences and choices by participating when the class votes to make simple decisions.

7. Develops a basic understanding of economic concepts within a community.
a) Demonstrates an understanding that money is needed to exchange for some goods and services.
b) Demonstrates understanding that money comes in different forms, i.e., coins and paper money.
c) Recognizes the roles/contributions of community workers as they produce goods/services that people need.
d) Recognizes that goods and services may be purchased using different forms of payment, (e.g., coins, paper money, checks, electronic payment, credit cards).

8. Demonstrates interest and awareness about a wide variety of careers and work environments.
a) Asks questions about and shows an interest in the jobs of his/her family members and/or “community helpers.”
b) Recognizes that people depend on “community helpers” to provide goods and services.
c) Identifies the tools and equipment that correspond to various roles and jobs.
d) Takes on the role of a “community helper”, e.g., dramatic play or in acting out a story or song.
e) Indicates an interest in a future career by making statements like, “I want to be a firefighter when I grow up.”
f) Talks about a parent’s, a relative’s or a neighbor’s job.

NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.
1. Expresses oneself and represents what he/she knows, thinks, believes and feels through visual arts.
a) Experiments with a variety of mediums and methods of using art materials
(such as using a big brush to paint broad strokes, combining colors, etc.).
b) Shows an interest in what can be created with tools, texture, color and technique.
c) Uses materials to build and create “pieces” that represent another item (blocks become a castle; clay becomes a snake).
d) Chooses materials and subjects with intent and purpose.
e) Paints, draws and constructs models based on observations.

2. Responds and react to visual arts created by themselves and others.
a) Expresses an interest in drawings, sculptures, models, paintings, and art creations of others.
b) Identifies similarities and differences among samples of visual art.
c) Shares opinions about visual arts, creations, and experiences.

3. Expresses oneself by engaging in musical activities.
a) Participates with increasing interest and enjoyment in a variety of music activities including listening to music, singing songs, performing finger plays, and experimenting with various musical instruments.
b) Enjoys singing, making up silly and rhyming verses, imitating rhythmic patterns, and using music to tell stories and express feelings.
c) Engages in music activities having different moods, tempos, and rhythms.
d) Uses and explores traditional and non-traditional sound sources including those that are electronic.
e) Creates sounds using traditional instruments (bells, drums, recorders, etc) and nontraditional  instruments (tin cans, oatmeal boxes, containers filled with water).

4. Responds and reacts during musical activities.
a) Observes a variety of musical performances, both vocal and instrumental.
b) Moves and keeps rhythm to different kinds of music.
c) Reacts to music through oral, written or visual expression.
d) Compares and contrasts different samples of music.
e) Expresses his/her preference for certain kinds of music.
f) Repeats, responds and/or reacts to lyrics and/or melodies.

5. Participates in a variety of dramatic play activities to represent fantasy and real life experiences.
a) Represents fantasy, real-life, imagination, and literature through dramatic play.
b) Assumes the role of something or someone else and attempts to speak in the appropriate manner and tone.
c) Participates in teacher-guided and/or spontaneous dramatic play activities such as acting out a story.
d) Uses basic props, and costume pieces to establish time, setting, and character.

6. Responds and reacts to theater and drama presentations.
a) Demonstrates age-appropriate behavior when observing theatre and drama.
b) Expresses his/her feelings about theatrical or dramatic productions or experiences through oral, written or visual expressions.

7. Expresses what he/she knows, thinks, feels and believes through dance and creative movement.
a) Demonstrates concepts (feelings, directions, words, ideas, etc.) through creative movement.
b) Uses movement to interpret or imitate feelings, animals, and such things as plants growing, or a rainstorm.
c) Uses creativity using his/her body (dance, march, hop, jump, sway, clap, snap, stomp, twist, turn, etc.).
d) Uses creative movement props such as crepe paper, streamers, hoops, and scarves to create special movements and dances.
e) Demonstrates a wide variety of movements and positions.
f) Learns simple, repetitive dance steps and routines.
g) Moves in spontaneous and imaginative ways to music, songs, rhythm, and silence.

8. Responds and reacts to dance and creative movement.
a) Imitates parts of dance or movement activity that he/she enjoys.
b) Compares and contrasts different forms of dance.
c) Demonstrates age appropriate audience behavior when observing dance and creative movement productions.
d) Describes interpretations and reactions to dance and movement experience
(e.g., drawing a picture, acting it out, retelling a story).

9. Expresses an understanding of artistic difference among cultures.
a) Compares his/her artistic creations with those from other cultures.
b) Describes similarities and differences in dance and creative movements from other cultures.
c) Distinguishes between different sounds of music and types of instruments from other cultures.
d) Discusses dances and dramatizations from various cultures.

NOTE: In prekindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.
1. Describes types of materials and how they’re used.
a) Discusses or describes characteristics of materials in the environment.
b) Explains some uses for materials, e.g., wood, fur, plastic.
c) Creates structures with various materials to determine which do/don’t work to achieve the desired purpose, (e.g., glue, tape; paper, cardboard, foam, plastic, wood; straws, spools).

2. Explores and uses various types of tools appropriately.
a) Identifies the functions of certain tools (e.g., cell phone, pulley, hammer, hearing aid, and microwave).
b) Follows simple directions for appropriate use of tools and demonstrates how they are used (e.g., computer, hammer, digital media or simple machine).
c) Describes and uses a variety of tools independently or with assistance (e.g., scissors, nut and bolt, incline plane, or lever).
d) Uses common tools to create simple objects or structures.
e) Invents and/or constructs simple objects or structures using common tools and materials in a safe manner (e.g., wood, glue, rulers, sandpaper, hammer, etc.).

3. Expresses an understanding of how technology affects them in daily life, and how it can be used to solve problems.
a) Identifies examples of technology used in daily life (e.g., telephone, computers, car).
b) Describes how technology can make finding information, completing tasks and solving problems faster and easier.
c) Identifies examples of how technology affects the environment, including home and school environments.

4. Understands the operation of technology systems.
a) Uses input and output devices to successfully operate technology systems
(e.g., keyboard, monitor, printer, vending machine).
b) Begins using appropriate vocabulary when describing the nature and operation of a technological system (e.g., pedal power moves a bicycle, gas moves a car, batteries operate a toy).
c) Gives examples of how technological systems are used (e.g., internet, cameras, cell phones).

5. Uses the knowledge of technology to increase learning.
a) Uses computer to write, draw and explore concepts.
b) Learns basic skills by using age appropriate computer programs.
c) Uses technology tools independently (e.g., instructional media games, digital cameras).




Curriculum Nursery (3 yr olds)